While it is arguably clear that there are a myriad of problems currently facing the global environment, of central focus to many researchers and scientists is the effect that the burning of fossil fuels is having on the global climate. When it comes to the concern over the burning of fossil fuels scientists note that the issue is of paramount concern because the process of utilizing fossil fuel for energy is damaging the environment.
Greenhouse gases , like carbon dioxide CO2 , are produced primarily through the burning of fossil fuels, like coal, natural gas and gasoline. In addition to global warming, some scientists speculate that the burning of fossil fuels is also responsible for global climate change. Due to the problems associated with the burning of fossil fuels for energy and the fact that fossil fuel resources are finite, scientists have reached out to the community as a whole to aid in the search for a cleaner and more renewable source of energy that will help clean up the environment while still providing the same conveniences as fossil fuel use.
In brief, solar energy takes energy emitted from the sun and transforms it into electricity. Solar energy is a renewable source of energy that can help save the environment. Despite its numerous benefits, however, the utilization of this form of energy has been met with a considerable amount of opposition in the United States and around the globe.
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With all of the benefits associated with solar energy, one begins to wonder what caused its demise. According to an author , the election of Ronald Reagan and his drastic cuts in solar energy research tabled the advancements that had been made up until that point in time. The approach has potential financial benefits for systems that are concerned about PV power output variability, ranging from individual distribution feeders to state-wide balancing regions. Because most of the costs of developing a PV power plant are paid before any energy is generated, optimizing the energy production from the plant is critical during plant design.
Lost energy and increased operations costs due to non-optimal site characterization, technology choice, plant design, installation and other factors result in lower energy production and a higher levelized cost of energy LCOE.
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Many design decisions are based on results from PV performance models. Current PV performance models can represent only some of the differences between sites, technologies, designs and operations choices.
This paper provides a description of what is currently known about some of the performance tradeoffs faced by PV plant designers and operators. It presents a vision for improving PV performance models so that in the near future a full optimization can be carried out to improve the performance and lower the costs of PV plants. This will hasten the adoption of clean energy production from the sun.
To achieve project cash flow expectations, it is necessary to operate, maintain and optimize the performance of a PV power asset to meet or exceed the pro forma operating assumptions. To assume as given the achievement of these model assumptions is both naive and risky. Mainstream Energy which supports three business units — REC Solar, AEE Solar and SnapNRack aims to simplify system design and configuration by utilizing new technologies and streamlining internal processes to reduce total system cost — and take solar to the mainstream.
Economic success in operating PV systems depends essentially on the likelihood of their long-term operation and their delivery of the expected energy yield. These requirements, for which a lifetime of 20—25 years is often assumed, are demanding and cannot be met without preparation. Preconditions are the acceptable quality and long-term stability of the products employed particularly the PV modules, but also all other components and materials and the absence of damage to these items during transport and handling. Moreover, PV systems must be professionally planned and properly implemented.
This includes considering energy yield assessments not only in the initial estimation of the energy yield, but also in the subsequent planning for concrete implementation. In addition, professional operational management and appropriate maintenance measures will ensure operation with maximum availability.
Yield insurance policies can safeguard profitability and render the risks calculable; various models exist for this purpose and these must be carefully tested. It is important that the insurances services also cover the possible insolvency of the responsible system and component suppliers. Like all semiconductor photovoltaic devices, cadmium telluride CdTe modules have a characteristic response to temperature changes.
This paper describes the effects of the temperature coefficient of power, using operational system data to quantify the First Solar CdTe technology energy-yield advantage over typical crystalline silicon technology in high-temperature conditions. This paper also describes the underlying mechanisms of initial stabilization and longterm degradation that influence module efficiency.
The processes used to characterize and rate module power output, given these effects, are further discussed. Here is a preview. Forgot password? Sign In Sign Up. Toggle navigation. Solar Expo.
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BGS Solar. The most exciting possibility for solar energy is satellite power station that will be transmitting electrical energy from the solar panels in space to Earth via microwave beams. These challenges can be met by developing an efficient energy storage system and developing cheap, efficient, and abundant PV solar cells.
This article discusses the solar energy system as a whole and provides a comprehensive review on the direct and the indirect ways to produce electricity from solar energy and the direct uses of solar energy. Furthermore, a comprehensive list of future potential research directions in the field of direct and indirect electricity generation from solar energy is proposed. Volume 43 , Issue 3. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.
If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. International Journal of Energy Research. Lana Alagha Corresponding Author E-mail address: alaghal mst.
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